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      6 sigma講解
      發布時間:2011.02.15 新聞來源:www.aetosz.com 瀏覽次數:
      - Why my company should go for SIX SIGMA ?
      A Beginning Definition of Six Sigma
      Companies exist to be profitable. Profitable companies provide jobs and pay taxes that benefit the community, state, and country where they make their products or provide their services. Making a profit is based on having customers who want your product or service. Wanting your product or service is just the beginning. Every customer has requirements regarding the product or service.
      meeting their requirements, you are being effective. If their requirements are not being met you are being ineffective. If you are ineffective and do nothing about it, soon you will be out of business.
      Effectiveness through meeting (and preferably exceeding) requirements is only half the battle. However, focusing merely on customer effectiveness would eventually mean they could go out of business. Why? Because to be a profitable business, an organization must also be efficient. Efficiency relates to the amount of resources consumed in being effective. Efficiency can be measured in time,cost, labor, or value. Since businesses exist to make a profit, being focused on the customer without also being focused on efficiency will not be a good business decision.
      Six Sigma, at its basic level, is attempting to improve both effectiveness and efficiency at the same time.
      A technical measure of how many unhappy customer experiences per million opportunities is the concept behind Six Sigma. For example, if on any day McDonald’s served one million customers,how many of them had a bad or unsatisfying experience like poor food quality, wrong food order etc. If only three (yes, three) customers were unhappy with their experience, then McDonald’s achieved Six Sigma on that day. This is because Six Sigma is equivalent to only 3.4 bad customer experiences for every million opportunities.
      If 233 bad customer experiences occurred per million McDonald’s customers then McDonald’s would be a Five Sigma company. If 6,210 customers had experienced soggy french fries or an inaccurate order then McDonald’s would be a Four Sigma company. If 66,807 McDonald’s customers opened their lunch bag and found a Big Mac when they had ordered a Quarter Pounder, McDonald’s would be a Three Sigma company.
      如果每一百萬顧客中有233個對服務不滿意,麥當勞就是5σ公司。如果有6,210個顧客吃了浸了水的干炸薯條或吃到上錯得飯菜,麥當勞就是4σ公司。如果有66,807個顧客要了Quarter Pounder,但是打開他們的午餐袋卻發現Big Mac,麥當勞就是3σ公司。
      Six Sigma is a measure of customer satisfaction that is near perfection. Most companies are at the two to three sigma level of performance–that means between 308,538 and 66,807 customer dissatisfaction occurrences per million customer contacts.
      Six Sigma was started in the mid-1980s. Here was a quality initiative that had a significant role for management in its implementation. Started at Motorola but popularized in the 1990s by AlliedSignal and General Electric, Six Sigma was different than previous approaches to quality improvement.
      6σ始于1980年中期,其動機是提高質量,在實施過程中,充當十分重要的管理角色。它最初見于Motorola公司,但在1990年后由AlliedSignal 和 General Electric公司推廣。6σ不同于先前的質量改善方法。
      Companies that have a two to three sigma level of performance experience business problems. They don’t make as much money as they should for their shareholders. Shareholders get mad and begin to take their money elsewhere. Management wants to increase profitability. They fear for their jobs and want to improve the "bottom line." Often, they think too much in the short term and begin to lay off employees. In the short term, the bottom line looks improved. Of course, the emphasis here is on the short term. With less people in the organization, there is more work for those who remain.
      What management forgets by "downsizing" is that if they run a business that is neither effective nor efficient, things will only get worse with less people expected to work harder. Ultimately, businesses that operate by focusing on short-term profitability will result in long-term unprofitability.
      In many companies, management believes that downsizing is a way to improve profitability. Since the 1980s, there have been attempts to change that approach. During the 1980s, some management improved profitability through downsizing. For example, the early 1980s showed an interest in Japanese manufacturing techniques. Some U.S. manufacturers mimicked these techniques. The early 1980s were marked by efforts like Statistical Process Control or Just in Time Manufacturing. While well intentioned, many of these efforts were ill fated from the beginning.
      Management attempted to use these efforts in the same way they used downsizing. That is, they attempted to use them as cost savings measures. The workforce saw these efforts for what they were, attempts to get more work out of less workers. This was particularly the case when these quality efforts were combined with downsizing. In addition, management only attempted to implement these initiatives as programs.What this meant was that the focus was almost exclusively on the tactics of improvement at the worker level with virtually no work done by management itself. For a company to truly become effective and efficient, it was necessary for a quality initiative to have a focus on changing how executives managed their business.
      Six Sigma was started in the mid-1980s. Here was a quality initiative that had a significant role for management in its implementation. Started at Motorola but popularized in the 1990s by AlliedSignal and General Electric, Six Sigma was different than previous approaches to quality improvement.
      6σ始于20世紀八十年代中期,其動機是提高質量,在實施過程中,充當十分重要的管理角色。它最初見于Motorola公司,但在1990年后由AlliedSignal 和 General Electric公司推廣。6σ不同于先前的質量改善方法。
      With other quality approaches, management played little if any role other than approval of bringing in external consultants to train the workforce. With Six Sigma, the work begins with management. First, executives create the Process Management system. Before work is done that affects the average worker, management has already spent several months working on identifying and measuring the processes of their organization.
      A process is defined as the series of steps and activities that take inputs provided by suppliers, add value and provide outputs for their customers. Six Sigma as a management philosophy instructs management to begin identifying the 20 or 30 most important processes in their business. Next management measures the current sigma performance of each of these processes.Many, if not all, of the processes will be operating at two to three sigma performance. Some processes may even be lower than two sigma. Once management has identified their processes and personally been involved in measurement of their current performance, they then identify the lowest performing processes that have the most direct impact on the company’s business objectives.
      Business objectives are the five to seven most important goals a company establishes each year. Sometimes they are financially stated (like profits) but there are others like customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction.
      Once the processes having the worst performance with the greatest impact to the business objectives are identified, project teams are formed. That’s where the individual worker comes in. They will become part of a five to seven person team that will have the responsibility of improving the performance of the worst performing processes. These teams usually exist for four to six months. They are taught a series of tools and concepts (that we will cover in later emails) to help them use their skills to improve sigma performance to achieve greater effectiveness and efficiency.
      The History of Six Sigma
      Motorola is where Six Sigma began. A highly skilled, confident,and trained engineer who knew statistics, Mikel Harry began to study the variations in the various processes within Motorola. He soon began to see that too much variation in any process resulted in poor customer satisfaction and ineffectiveness in meeting the customer requirements. While the concept of variation can be expressed statistically, it doesn’t have to be complicated.
      摩托羅拉是6σ誕生地。Mikel Harry,一個技術熟練的,充滿自信的,受過良好教育的,知道統計技術的工程師,開始研究摩托羅拉各個工藝過程中的變化。很快,他發現生產過程中太多變化導致顧客滿意度低,工作效率低難以滿足顧客的要求。若這些變化用統計技術表示,就不難理解。
      "Customers feel variation, not averages." Mikel Harry recognized the importance of measuring variations in the various processes of Motorola. However, unlike other quality efforts that spent most time on measurement, Harry and others at Motorola acted on what processes produced the most variation. They applied a complete set of tools to reduce and control the variation in the poorly performing processes and greatly improved the effectiveness and efficiency of those processes.
      “顧客看到變化,看不到一般”。Mikel Harry認識到測定摩托羅拉工藝過程變化的重要性。但是,不像其他得質量方法,大部分時間花在測量上,Harry和同時測定什么過程產生變化。他們應用一整套工具減少和控制效果差的過程,大大改善了這些過程的效果和效率。
      Less than two years after the initial application of Six Sigma,General Electric had generated over $320 million in cost savings. By 1998, it had generated three quarters of a billion dollars in cost savings and anticipated over a billion dollars of cost savings by 1999.
      6σ啟用1年多后,通用電氣公司節約成本超過320美元。到1998年,通用電氣公司節約成本超過750,000,000美元; 到1999年,通用電氣公司節約成本有望超過1,000,000,000美元。
      What Can Six Sigma Do for Your Company and You?
      First, successful implementation of Six Sigma will result in improved effectiveness and efficiency in the first "wave" of projects in the first six to nine months of implementation. Of the 20 to 30 processes in an organization, usually 7 to 10 will be part of the first implementation efforts. Of those 7 to 10 projects, 4 to 7 will probably be successful. These first projects will help generate increased enthusiasm and momentum for future Six Sigma activity within your company.
      In later months and years of Six Sigma implementation, you will notice other changes as well. First, while your reporting relationship within the organization may not change, you will be introduced to a group known as process owners. Process Owners are responsible for the management of processes within the organization. While the organization chart doesn’t change, process owners take on informal responsibilities for the management of crossfunctional, inter-departmental processes. These process owners may sponsor a team that is responsible for improving effectiveness and efficiency. These team sponsors are called project champions.
      Your company is pursuing Six Sigma to change the way it does business. To their credit, your management team is trying to change the way it manages. They probably recognize the folly of previous attempts to increase profitability through downsizing. They believe that greater effectiveness and efficiency will bring improved profitability. Improved profitability means business growth. Growth means more jobs, not less. Increased growth can mean increased stock price that will benefit the executives and those who report to them as well as all other stakeholders.
      Greater effectiveness and efficiency will mean a lot to you.First, it will mean greater job security. Second, it will mean learning new skills. These new skills will mean greater opportunities such as promotions in your current company. You may decide to take your new skills and market them to other companies. Even if you stay in your current job, you will find these new skills helpful. You will find using the tools of Six Sigma makes your job easier to do. Plus, working in processes that are effective and efficient means less stress and greater job enjoyment.
      Summary of Part 1,2 and 3
      Six Sigma is a popular management philosophy that is sweeping the globe. Its goal is to make an organization more effective and efficient. Effectiveness is the degree to which an organization meets and exceeds the needs and requirements of its customers. Efficiency is the resources consumed in achieving effectiveness.
      Six Sigma is equivalent to no more than 3.4 bad customer experiences for every million customer opportunities. Most organizations operate at between Two to Three Sigma performance, which at best is nearly 70,000 bad customer experiences per million customer opportunities. Six Sigma originated in the 1980s at Motorola. In the early 1990s, it migrated to AlliedSignal and in the mid-1990s, General Electric adopted it as their premier management philosophy.
      Unlike other quality initiatives that focused just on tools, Six Sigma is based on the active involvement it generates from management. Results from Six Sigma have not been paralleled by any other quality initiative.
      6σ等于每1.000,000顧客由3.4個不滿意。大多數公司在2-3σ運作,也就是每1.000,000顧客約有7000個不滿意。6σ由摩托羅拉在19世紀80年代初創,在19世紀90年代早期,遷移到AlliedSignal,在19世紀90年代中期,General Electric 將它作為基本的管理論。
      The Tactics of SIX SIGMA
      The tactics of Six Sigma are very much like the scientific method learned in elementary school. The scientific method is based on defining a problem, measuring the impact of the problem, determining root causes, and forming and testing hypotheses.
      The tactics of Six Sigma are made up of five steps: Define,Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The five steps of tactical Six Sigma are sometimes known by their initials DMAIC.
      Each step in DMAIC has a series of substeps known as tollgates.
      A. The tollgates of Define include creating the team’s charter,identifying the customers of the process,
      their needs and requirements, and creating a high-level map of the process.
      B. The tollgates of Measure include creation of the data collection plan and implementing that plan.
      C. The tollgates of Analysis include analyzing the data, analyzing the process, and analyzing the root causes for
      current sigma performance.
      D. The tollgates of Improve include generating and selecting solutions.
      E. The Control tollgates include choosing and implementing a form of technical control over the new process
      and creating a Response Plan.
      The Define Tollgates
      The Charter is the collection of documents that provide purpose and motivation for a Six Sigma team to do its work. It includes: The business case, The problem statement, Project scope, Goals and objectives, Milestones, Roles and responsibilities of the project team (Champion,Black Belt, Green Belt).
      The Measure Tollgates
      Creation of the Data Collection Plan :-
      The data collection plan has following columns. Each column has an important role in helping the team calculate the last column, baseline sigma.
      1. What to measure:
      2. The type of measure:
      3. The type of data:
      4. Operational definitions:
      5. Targets/specifications:
      6. Data collection forms:
      7. Sampling:

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