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      6 sigma講解
       
      發布時間:2011.02.15 新聞來源:www.aetosz.com 瀏覽次數:
       
      - Why my company should go for SIX SIGMA ?
      為什么公司追求6σ?
      PART1
      第一節
      A Beginning Definition of Six Sigma
      6σ最初的定義
      Companies exist to be profitable. Profitable companies provide jobs and pay taxes that benefit the community, state, and country where they make their products or provide their services. Making a profit is based on having customers who want your product or service. Wanting your product or service is just the beginning. Every customer has requirements regarding the product or service.
      公司以營利為目的,盈利公司通過生產產品或提供服務提供就業機會,上繳稅款,并使所在社區,國民,政府受益。營利的基礎是擁有需求產品和服務的顧客。對產品和服務的需求是第一位的。顧客對產品和服務的需求不同。
      meeting their requirements, you are being effective. If their requirements are not being met you are being ineffective. If you are ineffective and do nothing about it, soon you will be out of business.
      滿足他們的需求,你的工作就有成效;如果不能滿足他們的需求,你就等于在做無用功。如果你做無用功或什么都沒有做,你將被市場淘汰。
      Effectiveness through meeting (and preferably exceeding) requirements is only half the battle. However, focusing merely on customer effectiveness would eventually mean they could go out of business. Why? Because to be a profitable business, an organization must also be efficient. Efficiency relates to the amount of resources consumed in being effective. Efficiency can be measured in time,cost, labor, or value. Since businesses exist to make a profit, being focused on the customer without also being focused on efficiency will not be a good business decision.
      通過滿足顧客的要求獲取成效,僅是萬里長城的第一步。但是僅關注顧客的要求,最終還會被市場淘汰。為什么?因為要成為盈利公司,公司組織應追求效率。效率跟所消耗的資源數量有關。效率通過時間,成本,勞動或價值來測定。由于公司靠盈利生存,不注重效率,僅關注顧客就不是一個好公司的決策。
      Six Sigma, at its basic level, is attempting to improve both effectiveness and efficiency at the same time.
      6σ最初的目的是企圖同時改善效果和效率
      A technical measure of how many unhappy customer experiences per million opportunities is the concept behind Six Sigma. For example, if on any day McDonald’s served one million customers,how many of them had a bad or unsatisfying experience like poor food quality, wrong food order etc. If only three (yes, three) customers were unhappy with their experience, then McDonald’s achieved Six Sigma on that day. This is because Six Sigma is equivalent to only 3.4 bad customer experiences for every million opportunities.
      統計每一百萬個顧客中有多少個顧客不滿意的科學方法就是6σ。例如,麥當勞一天招待1,000,000個顧客,有多少個顧客因飯菜質量不佳和傳菜出錯等感到不滿意。如果只有3個顧客對他們的服務不滿意,麥當勞當日達到了6σ。這是因為6σ等于3.4ppm,即幾率為百萬分之三點四。
      If 233 bad customer experiences occurred per million McDonald’s customers then McDonald’s would be a Five Sigma company. If 6,210 customers had experienced soggy french fries or an inaccurate order then McDonald’s would be a Four Sigma company. If 66,807 McDonald’s customers opened their lunch bag and found a Big Mac when they had ordered a Quarter Pounder, McDonald’s would be a Three Sigma company.
      如果每一百萬顧客中有233個對服務不滿意,麥當勞就是5σ公司。如果有6,210個顧客吃了浸了水的干炸薯條或吃到上錯得飯菜,麥當勞就是4σ公司。如果有66,807個顧客要了Quarter Pounder,但是打開他們的午餐袋卻發現Big Mac,麥當勞就是3σ公司。
      Six Sigma is a measure of customer satisfaction that is near perfection. Most companies are at the two to three sigma level of performance–that means between 308,538 and 66,807 customer dissatisfaction occurrences per million customer contacts.
      6σ是測定顧客滿意度(接近完美)的方法。大多數公司處于2σ-3σ水平。也就是一百萬顧客當中有308,538-66,807個顧客不滿意。
      Six Sigma was started in the mid-1980s. Here was a quality initiative that had a significant role for management in its implementation. Started at Motorola but popularized in the 1990s by AlliedSignal and General Electric, Six Sigma was different than previous approaches to quality improvement.
      6σ始于1980年中期,其動機是提高質量,在實施過程中,充當十分重要的管理角色。它最初見于Motorola公司,但在1990年后由AlliedSignal 和 General Electric公司推廣。6σ不同于先前的質量改善方法。
      PART2
      第二部分
      COMPONENTS OF SIX SIGMA AND DIFFERENCES FROM PREVIOUS APPROACHES TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT
      6σ的要素及與以前的品質管理的差異
      Companies that have a two to three sigma level of performance experience business problems. They don’t make as much money as they should for their shareholders. Shareholders get mad and begin to take their money elsewhere. Management wants to increase profitability. They fear for their jobs and want to improve the "bottom line." Often, they think too much in the short term and begin to lay off employees. In the short term, the bottom line looks improved. Of course, the emphasis here is on the short term. With less people in the organization, there is more work for those who remain.
      2σ-3σ水平的企業存在業務問題。這樣的企業沒有掙到足夠的錢讓股東們分享。股東們發瘋了,將他們的投資轉向別處。管理人士想增加盈利,他們害怕失去工作,想改善“底線”。通常,他們看中短期效益,他們解雇員工。從短期看,底線得到改善。當然,這里強調的是短期效益。公司職員減少了,留下來的人將有更多的工作。
      What management forgets by "downsizing" is that if they run a business that is neither effective nor efficient, things will only get worse with less people expected to work harder. Ultimately, businesses that operate by focusing on short-term profitability will result in long-term unprofitability.
      通過“裁員”進行管理的管理人士忽略了這一點:如果他們經營一個沒有活力和沒有效率的公司,公司里很少有人希望努力工作,情況會變得更糟。最終,著眼于短期利益的公司,從長期利益來看,是不盈利的。
      In many companies, management believes that downsizing is a way to improve profitability. Since the 1980s, there have been attempts to change that approach. During the 1980s, some management improved profitability through downsizing. For example, the early 1980s showed an interest in Japanese manufacturing techniques. Some U.S. manufacturers mimicked these techniques. The early 1980s were marked by efforts like Statistical Process Control or Just in Time Manufacturing. While well intentioned, many of these efforts were ill fated from the beginning.
      許多公司,管理人士認為裁員是提高利益的一種方法。自20世紀八十年代以來,人們做了很多嘗試來改變這種做法。
      20
      世紀八十年代,部分公司通過裁員盈利。例如,20世紀八十年代初期,日本制造業盈利。一些美國制造業仿效日本制造業。20世紀八十年代初期,統計技術和準時制生產取得成效。盡管許多出發點是好的,但從一開始就注定要失敗。
      Management attempted to use these efforts in the same way they used downsizing. That is, they attempted to use them as cost savings measures. The workforce saw these efforts for what they were, attempts to get more work out of less workers. This was particularly the case when these quality efforts were combined with downsizing. In addition, management only attempted to implement these initiatives as programs.What this meant was that the focus was almost exclusively on the tactics of improvement at the worker level with virtually no work done by management itself. For a company to truly become effective and efficient, it was necessary for a quality initiative to have a focus on changing how executives managed their business.
      管理人士企圖用跟縮少規模相同的方法來節約成本。作業人員從他們的過去看到了他們的努力,企圖從裁員中找到更多的工作。這是品質管理方法同縮少規模相結合的特例。另外,管理人士,企圖程序般地實施目標。這意味著:著重點幾乎在改善員工作業效果的方法上,表面看似管理本身什么也沒有做。一個公司要真正變成有成效和有效率,從品質出發,強調改變管理層人士如何經營他們的企業的方法,是必要的。
      Six Sigma was started in the mid-1980s. Here was a quality initiative that had a significant role for management in its implementation. Started at Motorola but popularized in the 1990s by AlliedSignal and General Electric, Six Sigma was different than previous approaches to quality improvement.
      6σ始于20世紀八十年代中期,其動機是提高質量,在實施過程中,充當十分重要的管理角色。它最初見于Motorola公司,但在1990年后由AlliedSignal 和 General Electric公司推廣。6σ不同于先前的質量改善方法。
      With other quality approaches, management played little if any role other than approval of bringing in external consultants to train the workforce. With Six Sigma, the work begins with management. First, executives create the Process Management system. Before work is done that affects the average worker, management has already spent several months working on identifying and measuring the processes of their organization.
      用其他品質管理方法,管理人士除了邀請外面的顧問來培訓員工,收效甚微。用6σ,開始就對工作進行管理。首先,執行人員創建過程管理系統。在影響一般員工之前,管理人士已經花了好幾個月識別和測定各個管理過程。
      A process is defined as the series of steps and activities that take inputs provided by suppliers, add value and provide outputs for their customers. Six Sigma as a management philosophy instructs management to begin identifying the 20 or 30 most important processes in their business. Next management measures the current sigma performance of each of these processes.Many, if not all, of the processes will be operating at two to three sigma performance. Some processes may even be lower than two sigma. Once management has identified their processes and personally been involved in measurement of their current performance, they then identify the lowest performing processes that have the most direct impact on the company’s business objectives.
      過程被定義為一系列的步驟和行為:供應商提供輸入,附加價值,向顧客提供輸出。6σ,作為一個管理理論,指導管理人士開始確認企業內部20或30個重要的過程。接著,管理人士測量每個過程當前σ功效。大多數過程(如果不是所有的),將在2-3σ運作。有些過程甚至比2σ低。管理人士確認各個過程,親自參與測量當前功效,他們就可以識別直接影響企業目標的功效最差的過程。
      Business objectives are the five to seven most important goals a company establishes each year. Sometimes they are financially stated (like profits) but there are others like customer satisfaction or employee satisfaction.
      一個公司每年建立5-7個企業目標。有時,企業目標是盈利為目標,但也有其他的企業目標如顧客滿意度或職工滿意度。
      Once the processes having the worst performance with the greatest impact to the business objectives are identified, project teams are formed. That’s where the individual worker comes in. They will become part of a five to seven person team that will have the responsibility of improving the performance of the worst performing processes. These teams usually exist for four to six months. They are taught a series of tools and concepts (that we will cover in later emails) to help them use their skills to improve sigma performance to achieve greater effectiveness and efficiency.
      確認對企業目標影響最大的,功效最差的過程,組建“工程隊”。那是工人們加入的地方。他們組建5-7人的小組,負責對功效最差的過程進行改善。這些小組存在時間為4-6月。有人教他們改善工具和術語,幫助他們應用技巧改善σ性能,達到更好得效果和效率。
      PART3
      第三部分
      The History of Six Sigma
      6σ的歷史
      Motorola is where Six Sigma began. A highly skilled, confident,and trained engineer who knew statistics, Mikel Harry began to study the variations in the various processes within Motorola. He soon began to see that too much variation in any process resulted in poor customer satisfaction and ineffectiveness in meeting the customer requirements. While the concept of variation can be expressed statistically, it doesn’t have to be complicated.
      摩托羅拉是6σ誕生地。Mikel Harry,一個技術熟練的,充滿自信的,受過良好教育的,知道統計技術的工程師,開始研究摩托羅拉各個工藝過程中的變化。很快,他發現生產過程中太多變化導致顧客滿意度低,工作效率低難以滿足顧客的要求。若這些變化用統計技術表示,就不難理解。
      "Customers feel variation, not averages." Mikel Harry recognized the importance of measuring variations in the various processes of Motorola. However, unlike other quality efforts that spent most time on measurement, Harry and others at Motorola acted on what processes produced the most variation. They applied a complete set of tools to reduce and control the variation in the poorly performing processes and greatly improved the effectiveness and efficiency of those processes.
      “顧客看到變化,看不到一般”。Mikel Harry認識到測定摩托羅拉工藝過程變化的重要性。但是,不像其他得質量方法,大部分時間花在測量上,Harry和同時測定什么過程產生變化。他們應用一整套工具減少和控制效果差的過程,大大改善了這些過程的效果和效率。
      Less than two years after the initial application of Six Sigma,General Electric had generated over $320 million in cost savings. By 1998, it had generated three quarters of a billion dollars in cost savings and anticipated over a billion dollars of cost savings by 1999.
      6σ啟用1年多后,通用電氣公司節約成本超過320美元。到1998年,通用電氣公司節約成本超過750,000,000美元; 到1999年,通用電氣公司節約成本有望超過1,000,000,000美元。
      What Can Six Sigma Do for Your Company and You?
      6σ對你的公司,對你有什么好處?
      First, successful implementation of Six Sigma will result in improved effectiveness and efficiency in the first "wave" of projects in the first six to nine months of implementation. Of the 20 to 30 processes in an organization, usually 7 to 10 will be part of the first implementation efforts. Of those 7 to 10 projects, 4 to 7 will probably be successful. These first projects will help generate increased enthusiasm and momentum for future Six Sigma activity within your company.
      首先,成功推行6σ管理,6-9月將改善首批項目的效果和效率。一個公司20-30個過程,通常,首次推行6σ管理的有7-10個過程。在這7-10個過程中,可能取得成功的有4-7個項目。首次推行的項目,將有助于增加你們公司未來6σ活動的干勁和熱情。
      In later months and years of Six Sigma implementation, you will notice other changes as well. First, while your reporting relationship within the organization may not change, you will be introduced to a group known as process owners. Process Owners are responsible for the management of processes within the organization. While the organization chart doesn’t change, process owners take on informal responsibilities for the management of crossfunctional, inter-departmental processes. These process owners may sponsor a team that is responsible for improving effectiveness and efficiency. These team sponsors are called project champions.
      6σ實施的最近期間,你會發現許多其它變化。首先,組織內部可能沒有變化,但你被介紹給過程業主。過程業主負責組織內部過程的管理。組織結構圖沒有變化,過程業主負責交叉功能的管理,部門內部的過程管理(非正式)。這些過程業主領導一對人馬,負責改善效果和效率。這些分隊的領導叫做項目盟主。
      Your company is pursuing Six Sigma to change the way it does business. To their credit, your management team is trying to change the way it manages. They probably recognize the folly of previous attempts to increase profitability through downsizing. They believe that greater effectiveness and efficiency will bring improved profitability. Improved profitability means business growth. Growth means more jobs, not less. Increased growth can mean increased stock price that will benefit the executives and those who report to them as well as all other stakeholders.
      你們公司正在實施6σ來改變經營方式。讓他們信任的是,你的管理小組設法改變管理模式。他們可能認識到以前通過裁員縮小規模來提高收益時愚昧的措施。他們相信高效率將帶來更大的利益。利益率改善意味著營業額增長。營業額增長意味就業率增加,而不是減少?焖僭鲩L意味著商品價格增加,這將使管理人士和箱管理人員匯報的職員獲益,當然其他員工也不例外。
      Greater effectiveness and efficiency will mean a lot to you.First, it will mean greater job security. Second, it will mean learning new skills. These new skills will mean greater opportunities such as promotions in your current company. You may decide to take your new skills and market them to other companies. Even if you stay in your current job, you will find these new skills helpful. You will find using the tools of Six Sigma makes your job easier to do. Plus, working in processes that are effective and efficient means less stress and greater job enjoyment.
      高效率對你而言,非同小可。首先,更加安全,其次,學到了新的技術。這些技術意味著更多的機會,比如公司內部的晉升。你可以帶走你的技術增加了到其他公司應聘的籌碼。即使你還滯留在原工作崗位,你會發現這些技巧對你的工作很有幫助。你揮發現6σ是一個很好的工具,使你的工作變得更加容易。
      Summary of Part 1,2 and 3
      1-3部分的概要
      Six Sigma is a popular management philosophy that is sweeping the globe. Its goal is to make an organization more effective and efficient. Effectiveness is the degree to which an organization meets and exceeds the needs and requirements of its customers. Efficiency is the resources consumed in achieving effectiveness.
      6σ是一個受歡迎的管理理論,它波及全球。6σ的目標是使組織更有成效,更有效率。成效是組織滿足和超過顧客的要求/需求的程度。效率是獲得成效縮小好的資源。
      Six Sigma is equivalent to no more than 3.4 bad customer experiences for every million customer opportunities. Most organizations operate at between Two to Three Sigma performance, which at best is nearly 70,000 bad customer experiences per million customer opportunities. Six Sigma originated in the 1980s at Motorola. In the early 1990s, it migrated to AlliedSignal and in the mid-1990s, General Electric adopted it as their premier management philosophy.
      Unlike other quality initiatives that focused just on tools, Six Sigma is based on the active involvement it generates from management. Results from Six Sigma have not been paralleled by any other quality initiative.
      6σ等于每1.000,000顧客由3.4個不滿意。大多數公司在2-3σ運作,也就是每1.000,000顧客約有7000個不滿意。6σ由摩托羅拉在19世紀80年代初創,在19世紀90年代早期,遷移到AlliedSignal,在19世紀90年代中期,General Electric 將它作為基本的管理論。
      The Tactics of SIX SIGMA
      6σ策略
      The tactics of Six Sigma are very much like the scientific method learned in elementary school. The scientific method is based on defining a problem, measuring the impact of the problem, determining root causes, and forming and testing hypotheses.
      6σ策略酷似小學學到的科學方法。該科學方法根本點在于確定問題,衡量問題的影響,探尋問題的根源,構造假說和驗證假說。
      The tactics of Six Sigma are made up of five steps: Define,Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. The five steps of tactical Six Sigma are sometimes known by their initials DMAIC.
      6σ策略由5步組成:定義,測定,分析,改善和控制。6σ策略的5步有時稱作DMAIC。
      Each step in DMAIC has a series of substeps known as tollgates.
      DMAIC的每步由一系列關組成。
      A. The tollgates of Define include creating the team’s charter,identifying the customers of the process,
      their needs and requirements, and creating a high-level map of the process.
      定義由下列關組成:創建隊章,識別過程顧客,確定顧客需求和創建過程高位圖
      B. The tollgates of Measure include creation of the data collection plan and implementing that plan.
      測量由下列關組成:制訂數據收集計劃和按照計劃實施
      C. The tollgates of Analysis include analyzing the data, analyzing the process, and analyzing the root causes for
      current sigma performance.
      分析由下列關組成:分析數據,分析過程,分析當前σ功效的根源。
      D. The tollgates of Improve include generating and selecting solutions.
      改善由下列關組成:探尋解決問題的方案和選擇最佳解決方案。
      E. The Control tollgates include choosing and implementing a form of technical control over the new process
      and creating a Response Plan.
      控制由下列關組成:選擇新過程的控制方法,實施控制和創建響應計劃。
      The Define Tollgates
      定義
      The Charter is the collection of documents that provide purpose and motivation for a Six Sigma team to do its work. It includes: The business case, The problem statement, Project scope, Goals and objectives, Milestones, Roles and responsibilities of the project team (Champion,Black Belt, Green Belt).
      章程是收集能提供6σ組開展工作的目的和動機的文檔。它包括業務,問題描述,工程范圍,目標,里程碑,工程組的職責(盟主,黑帶,綠帶)。
      The Measure Tollgates
      測量
      Creation of the Data Collection Plan :-
      數據收集計劃的創建
      The data collection plan has following columns. Each column has an important role in helping the team calculate the last column, baseline sigma.
      數據收集計劃包括下列欄目。每一欄有一個重要的角色,幫助各小組計算最后一欄的基礎σ。
      1. What to measure:
      測量對象
      2. The type of measure:
      測量類型
      3. The type of data:
      數據類型
      4. Operational definitions:
      運作的定義
      5. Targets/specifications:
      目標/要求
      6. Data collection forms:
      數據收集形式
      7. Sampling:
      取樣

       
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